European Microscopic Colits Group
European Microscopic Colits Group

EMCG LIBRARY

EPIDEMIOLOGY, RISK FACTORS

Bonderup OK, Wigh T, Nielsen GL, Pedersen L, Fenger-Grøn M. The epidemiology of microscopic colitis: a 10-year pathology-based nationwide Danish cohort study. Scand J Gastroenterol 2015;50:393-8.

Verhaegh BP, Jonkers DM, Driessen A, Zeegers MP, Keszthelyi D, Masclee AA, Pierik MJ. Incidence of microscopic colitis in the Netherlands. A nationwide population-based study from 2000 to 2012. Dig Liver Dis 2015; 47:30-6.

Bonderup OK, Fenger-Grøn M, Wigh T, Pedersen L, Nielsen GL. Drug Exposure and Risk of Microscopic Colitis: A Nationwide Danish Case-Control Study with 5751 Cases. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2014 Aug 22. [Epub ahead of print]

Tontini GE, Pastorelli L, Spina L, Fabris F, Bruni B, Clemente C, de Nucci G, Cavallaro F, Marconi S, Neurath MF, Neumann H, Tacconi M, Vecchi M. Microscopic colitis and colorectal neoplastic lesion rate in chronic nonbloody diarrhea: a prospective, multicenter study. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2014;20:882-91.

Munck LK, Wildt S, Engell PJ, Bonderup OK. [Microscopic colitis is a common cause of chronic diarrhoea.] Ugeskr Laeger. 2014 Feb 17;176(8A). pii: V10130601. Danish.

Fernández-Bañares F, de Sousa MR, Salas A, Beltrán B, Piqueras M, Iglesias E, Gisbert JP, Lobo B, Puig-Diví V, García-Planella E, Ordás I, Andreu M, Calvo M, Montoro M, Esteve M, Viver JM; RECOMINA Project, GETECCU (Grupo Español de Enfermedades de Crohn y Colitis Ulcerosa). Impact of current smoking on the clinical course of microscopic colitis. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2013;19:1470-6.

Fernández-Bañares F, de Sousa MR, Salas A, Beltrán B, Piqueras M, Iglesias E, Gisbert JP, Lobo B, Puig-Diví V, García-Planella E, Ordás I, Andreu M, Calvo M, Montoro M, Esteve M, Viver JM; RECOMINA Project, GETECCU Grupo Español de Enfermedades de Crohn y Colitis Ulcerosa. Epidemiological risk factors in microscopic colitis: a prospective case-control study. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2013;19:411-7.

Vigren L, Tysk C, Ström M, Kilander A, Hjortswang H, Bohr J, Benoni C, Larsson L, Sjöberg K. Celiac disease and other autoimmune diseases in patients with collagenous colitis. Scand J Gastroenterol 2013;48:944-50.

Wickbom A, Bohr J, Eriksson S, Udumyan R, Nyhlin N, Tysk C. Stable incidence of collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis in Örebro, Sweden, 1999-2008: a continuous epidemiological study. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2013;19:2387-2393.

Keszthelyi D, Penders J, Masclee AA, Pierik M. Is microscopic colitis a drug-induced disease? J Clin Gastroenterol 2012;46:811-22.

Fernández-Bañares F, Salas A, Esteve M, Pardo L, Casalots J, Forné M, Espinós JC, Loras C, Rosinach M, Viver JM. Evolution of the incidence of collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis in Terrassa, Spain: a population-based study. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2011;17:1015-20.

Vigren L, Sjöberg K, Benoni C, Tysk C, Bohr J, Kilander A, Larsson L, Ström M, Hjortswang H. Is smoking a risk factor for collagenous colitis? Scand J Gastroenterol 2011;46:1334-9.

Fernández-Bañares F, Esteve M, Espinós JC, Rosinach M, Forné M, Salas A, Viver JM. Drug consumption and the risk of microscopic colitis. Am J Gastroenterol 2007;102:324-30.

Olesen M, Eriksson S, Bohr J, Järnerot G, Tysk C. Microscopic colitis - a common diarrhoeal disease. An epidemiologic study in Örebro, Sweden from 1993 to 1998. Gut 2004;53:346-350.

Fernández-Bañares F, Salas A, Forné M, Esteve M, Espinós J, Viver JM. Incidence of collagenous and lymphocytic colitis: a 5-year population-based study. Am J Gastroenterol 1999;94:418-23.

Bohr J, Tysk C, Eriksson S, Järnerot G. Collagenous colitis in Örebro, Sweden; an epidemiological study 1984-1993. Gut 1995;37:394-397.


HISTOPATHOLOGY, PATHOPHYSIOLOGY, GENETICS

Günaltay S, Kumawat AK, Nyhlin N, Tysk C, Bohr J, Hultgren O, Hultgren-Hörnquist E. Enhanced levels of chemokines and their receptors in the colon of microscopic colitis patients indicate mixed immune cell recruitment. Mediators Inflamm 2015;2015:132458.

Günaltay S, Nyhlin N, Kumawat AK, Tysk C, Bohr J, Hultgren O, Hultgren Hörnquist E. Differential expression of interleukin-1/Toll-like receptor signaling regulators in microscopic and ulcerative colitis World J Gastroenterol 2014;20:12249-12259.

Kumawat AK, Nyhlin N, Wickbom A, Tysk C, Bohr J, Hultgren O, Hultgren-Hörnquist E. An in vitro model to evaluate the impact of the soluble factors from the colonic mucosa of collagenous colitis patients on T cells; enhanced production of IL-17A and IL-10 from peripheral CD4+ T cells. Mediators Inflamm 2014;2014:879843

Fiehn AM, Bjørnbak C, Warnecke M, Engel PJ, Munck LK. Observer variability in the histopathologic diagnosis of microscopic colitis and subgroups. Hum Pathol 2013;44:2461-6.

Kumawat A, Strid H, Elgbratt K, Tysk C, Bohr J, Hultgren-Hörnquist E. Microscopic colitis patients have increased proportions of Ki67+ proliferating and CD45RO+ active/memory CD8+ and CD4+8+ mucosal T cells. Journal of Crohn's and Colitis 2013;7:694-705.

Göranzon C, Kumawat AK, Hultgren-Hörnqvist E, Tysk C, Eriksson S, Bohr J, Nyhlin N. Immunohistochemical characterization of lymphocytes in microscopic colitis. Journal of Crohn?s and Colitis 2013;7:e434-442.

Kumawat AK, Strid H, Tysk C, Bohr J, Hultgren-Hörnquist E. Microscopic colitis patients demonstrate a mixed Th17/Tc17 and Th1/Tc1 mucosal cytokine profile. Molecular Immunology 2013;55:355-364.

Kumawat AK, Elgbratt K, Tysk C, Bohr J, Hörnquist EH. Reduced T cell receptor excision circle levels in the colonic mucosa of microscopic colitis patients indicate localproliferation rather than homing of peripheral lymphocytes to the inflamed mucosa. Biomed Res Int. 2013, Epub 2013 Jul 14.

Münch A, Söderholm JD, Ost A, Carlsson AH, Magnusson KE, Ström M. Low levels of bile acids increase bacterial uptake in colonic biopsies from patients with collagenous colitis in remission. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2011;33:954-60.

Madisch A, Hellmig S, Schreiber S, Bethke B, Stolte M, Miehlke S. Allelic variation of the matrix metalloproteinase-9 gene is associated with collagenous colitis. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2011 Feb 8. doi: 10.1002/ibd.21640.

Walter SA, Münch A, Ost A, Ström M. Anorectal function in patients with collagenous colitis in active and clinically quiescent phase, in comparison with healthy controls. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2010;22:534-8.

Münch A, Söderholm JD, Ost A, Ström M. Increased transmucosal uptake of E. coli K12 in collagenous colitis persists after budesonide treatment. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009;104:679-85.

Fernández-Bañares F, Casalots J, Salas A, Esteve M, Rosinach M, Forné M, Loras C, Santaolalla R, Espinós J, Viver JM. Paucicellular lymphocytic colitis: is it a minor form of lymphocytic colitis? A clinical pathological and immunological study. Am J Gastroenterol 2009;104:1189-98.

Wildt S, Rumessen JJ, Csillag C, Normark M, Poulsen KA, Kolko M. Cyclooxygenase-2 immunoreactivity in collagenous colitis. APMIS 2009;117:500-6.

Fernández-Bañares F, Salas A, Esteve M. Pitfalls and errors in the diagnosis of collagenous and lymphocytic colitis. J Crohns Colitis 2008;2:343-7.

Münch A, Ström M, Söderholm JD Dihydroxy-bile acids increase mucosal permeability and bacterial uptake in human colon biopsies. Scand J Gastroenterol 2007;42:1-8.

Wildt S, Nordgaard-Lassen I, Bendtsen F, Rumessen JJ. Metabolic and inflammatory faecal markers in collagenous colitis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2007;19:567-74.

Madisch A, Hellmig S, Schreiber S, Bethke B, Stolte M, Miehlke S. NOD2/CARD15 gene polymorphisms are not associated with collagenous colitis. Int J Colorect Dis 2006; Jun 28; [Epub ahead of print

Kumawat AK, Elgbratt K, Tysk C, Bohr J, Hultgren-Hörnquist E. Reduced T cell receptor excision circles levels in the colonic mucosa of microscopic colitis patients indicate local proliferation rather than homing of peripheral lymphocytes to the inflamed mucosa. Biomed Res Int 2013;2013:408638.

Bonderup OK, Hansen JB, Madsen P, Vestergaard V, Fallingborg J, Teglbjaerg PS. Budesonide treatment and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA in colonic mucosa in collagenous colitis.Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Oct;18(10):1095-9.

Wildt S, Madsen JL, Rumessen JJ. Small-bowel permeability in collagenous colitis. Scand J Gastroenterol 2006;41:1044-9.

Fernández-Bañares F, Esteve M, Farré C, Salas A, Alsina M, Casalots J, Espinós J, Forné M, Viver JM. Predisposing HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 haplotypes of coeliac disease and associated enteropathy in microscopic colitis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005;17:1333-8.

Münch A, Söderholm JD, Wallon C, Ström M. Dynamics of mucosal permeability and inflammation in collagenous colitis before, during and after loop ileostomy. Gut 2005;54:1126-28.

Olesen M, Middelveld R, Bohr J, Tysk C, Lundberg JON, Eriksson S, Alving K, Järnerot G. Luminal nitric oxide and epithelial expression of inducible and endothelial nitric oxide synthase in collagenous and lymphocytic colitis. Scand J Gastroenterol 2003;38:66-72.

Salas A, Fernández-Bañares F, Casalots J, González C, Tarroch X, Forcada P, González G. Subepithelial myofibroblasts and tenascin expression in microscopic colitis. Histopathology 2003;43:48-54.

Wildt S, Nørby Rasmussen S, Lysgård Madsen J, Rumessen JJ. Bile acid malabsorption in patients with chronic diarrhoea: clinical value of SeHCAT test. Scand J Gastroenterol 2003;38:826-3.

Bohr J, Järnerot G, Tysk C, Jones I, Eriksson S. Effect of fasting on diarrhoea in collagenous colitis. Digestion 2002;65:30-4.

Bohr J, Nordfelth R, Järnerot G, Wolf-Watz H, Tysk C. Yersinia species in collagenous colitis. Scand J Gastroenterol 2002;37:711-4.

Järnerot G, Hertervig E, Grännö C, Thorallsson E, Eriksson S, Tysk C, Hansson I, Björknäs H, Bohr J, Olesen M, Willén R, Kagevi I, Danielsson Å. Familial occurrence of microscopic colitis. A report of five families. Scand J Gastroenterol 2001;36:959-962.

Fernandez-Bañares F, Esteve M, Salas A, Forné TM, Espinos JC, Martín-Comin J, Viver JM. Bile acid malabsorption in microscopic colitis and in previously unexplained functional chronic diarrhea. Dig Dis Sci 2001;46:2231-8.

Lundberg JON, Herulf M, Olesen M, Bohr J, Tysk C, Wiklund NP, Morcos E, Hellström PM, Weitzberg E, Järnerot G. Increased nitric oxide production in collagenous and lymphocytic colitis. Eur J Clin Invest 1997;27:869-71.

Bohr J, Tysk C, Yang P, Danielsson D, Järnerot G. Autoantibodies and immunoglobulins in collagenous colitis. Gut 1996;39:73-76.

Yang P, Bohr J, Tysk C, Danielsson D, Järnerot G. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in inflammatory bowel disease and collagenous colitis. No association with lactoferrin, b-glucuronidase, myeloperoxidase, or proteinase 3. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 1996;2:173-7.

Järnerot G, Tysk C, Bohr J, Eriksson S. Collagenous colitis and fecal stream diversion. Gastroenterology 1995;109:449-455.

Bohr J, Jones I, Tysk C, Järnerot G. Serum procollagen III propeptide is not of diagnostic predictive value in collagenous colitis. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 1995;1:276-279.


CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS, QUALITY OF LIFE

Yung DE, Koulaouzidis A, Fineron P, Plevris JN. Microscopic colitis: a misnomer for a clearly defined entity? Endoscopy 2015 May 11. [Epub ahead of print]

Nyhlin N, Wickbom A, Montgomery SM, Tysk C, Bohr J. Long term symptom burden and health-related quality of life in patients with collagenous and lymphocytic colitis; case-control study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2014;39:963-72.

Madisch A, Miehlke S, Bartosch F, Bethke B, Stolte M. Microscopic colitis: Clinical presentation, treatment and outcome of 494 patients. Z Gastroenterol 2014;52:1062-1065.

Fernández-Bañares F, Gisbert JP. Letter: Persisting clinical symptoms in microscopic colitis in remission. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2014;40:117-8.

Madalinski M, Koulaouzidis A. Collagenous colitis with mucosal tears in two proton pump inhibitors and non-steroidal naive patients who developed metachronous cancer. J Dig Dis 2013;14:51-3.

Bjørnbak C, Engel PJ, Nielsen PL, Munck LK. Microscopic colitis: clinical findings, topography and persistence of histopathological subgroups. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2011;34:1225-34.

Hjortswang H, Tysk C, Bohr J, Benoni C, Vigren L, Kilander A, Larsson L, Taha Y, Ström M. Health-related quality of life is impaired in active collagenous colitis. Dig Liver Dis 2011;43:102-9.

Koulaouzidis A. Unique endoscopic findings in lymphocytic colitis. Arab J Gastroenterol. 2011 Dec;12(4):203-4.

Fernández-Bañares F, Gisbert JP. Letter: are lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis really the same disease? Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2012;36:606 Koulaouzidis A. Mucosal scars in collagenous colitis. Gastrointest Endosc. 2010 Jan;71(1):221-2

Hjortswang H, Tysk C, Bohr J, Benoni C, Vigren L, Kilander A, Larsson L, Ström M. Defining clinical criteria for remission and disease activity in collagenous colitis. Inflammatory Bowel Disease 2009;15:1875-81.

Koulaouzidis A. Microscopic colitis and endoscopy. Neth J Med. 2009 Oct;67(9):316.

Wickbom A, Lindqvist M, Bohr J, Ung KA, Bergman J, Eriksson S, Tysk C. Colonic mucosal tears in collagenous colitis. Scand J Gastroenterol 2006;41:726-9.

Koulaouzidis A, Henry JA, Saeed AA. Mucosal tears can occur spontaneously in collagenous colitis. Endoscopy 2006;38:549.

Bohr J, Larsson LG, Eriksson S, Järnerot G, Tysk C. Colonic perforation in collagenous colitis ? an unusual complication. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005;17:121-4.

Olesen M, Eriksson S, Bohr J, Järnerot G, Tysk C. Lymphocytic colitis - a retrospective clinical study of 199 Swedish patients. Gut 2004;53:536-541.

Fernández-Bañares F, Salas A, Esteve M, Espinós J, Forné M, Viver JM. Collagenous and lymphocytic colitis. evaluation of clinical and histological features, response to treatment, and long-term follow-up. Am J Gastroenterol 2003;98:340-7.

Bohr J, Tysk C, Eriksson S, Abrahamsson H, Järnerot G. Collagenous colitis: a retrospective study of clinical presentation and treatment in 163 patients. Gut 1996;39:846-51.


TREATMENT, OUTCOME

Daferera N, Kumawat AK, Hultgren-Hörnquist E, Ignatova S, Ström M, Münch A. Fecal stream diversion and mucosal cytokine levels in collagenous colitis: A case report.World J Gastroenterol 2015;21:6065-71.

Miehlke S, Madisch A, Kupcinskas L, Petrauskas D, Heptner G, Böhm G, Dr. (5), Marks HJ, Neumeyer M, Nathan T, Fernández-Bañares F, Greinwald R, Mohrbacher R, Vieth M, Bonderup OK. Randomized, Placebo-controlled Multicenter Study of Budesonide and Mesalamine for Short-term Treatment of Collagenous Colitis. Gastroenterology 2014 Jan 15. pii: S0016-5085(14)00076-6. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2014.01.019. [Epub ahead of print]

Münch A, Bohr J, Miehlke S, Benoni C, Olesen M, Öst A, Strandberg L, Hellström PM, Hertervig E, Armerding P, Stehlik J, Lindberg G, Björk Jan, Lapidus A, Löfberg R, Bonderup O, Avnström S, Rössle M, Dilger K, Mueller R, Greinwald R, Tysk C, Ström M on behalf of the BUC-63 investigators. Low-dose budesonide for maintenance of clinical remission in collagenous colitis: A randomized, placebo-controlled 12-month trial. Gut 2014 Nov 25. pii: gutjnl-2014-308363.

Münch A, Bohr J, Vigren L, Tysk C, Ström M. Lack of effect of methotrexate in budesonide- refractory collagenous colitis. Clin Exp Gastroenterol. 2013;6:149-15.

Münch A, Fernandez-Banares F, Munck LK. Azathioprine and mercaptopurine in the management of patients with chronic, active microscopic colitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2013;37:795-8.

Miehlke S, Hansen JB, Madisch A, Schwarz F, Kuhlisch E, Morgner A, Teglbjaerg PS, Vieth M, Aust D, Bonderup OK. Risk factors for Symptom Relapse in Collagenous Colitis after withdrawal of Short-Term Budesonide Therapy. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2013;19:2763-7.

Münch A, Ignatova S, Ström M: Adalimumab in budesonide and methotrexate refractory collagenous colitis. Scand J Gastroenterol 2012;47:59-63.

Esteve M, Mahadevan U, Sainz E, Rodriguez E, Salas A, Fernández-Bañares F. Efficacy of anti-TNF therapies in refractory severe microscopic colitis. J Crohns Colitis 2011;5:612-8.

Bonderup OK, Hansen JB, Teglbjaerg PS, Christensen LA, Fallingborg JF. Long-term budesonide treatment of collagenous colitis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Gut. 2009 Jan;58(1):68-72. doi: 10.1136/gut.2008.156513. Epub 2008 Jul 31. PMID: 18669576 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Miehlke S, Madisch A, Karimi D, Wonschik S, Kuhlisch E, Beckmann R, Morgner A, Mueller R, Greinwald R, Seitz G, Baretton G, Stolte M. Budesonide is effective in treating lymphocytic colitis: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Gastroenterology 2009;136:2092-100.

Miehlke S, Madisch A, Bethke B, Morgner A, Kuhlisch E, Henker C, Vogel G, Andersen M, Meier E, Baretton G, Stolte Oral budesonide for maintenance treatment of collagenous colitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Gastroenterology 2008;135:1510-6.

Madisch A, Miehlke S, Eichele O, Mrwa J, Bethke B, Kuhlisch E, Bästlein E, Wilhelms G, Morgner A, Wigginghaus B, Stolte M. Boswellia serrata extract for the treatment of collagenous colitis. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Int J Colorectal Dis 2007;22:1445-51.

Madisch A, Miehlke S, Lindner M, Bethke B, Stolte M. Clinical course of collagenous colitis over a period of 10 years. Z Gastroenterol 2006;44:971-974.

Wildt S, Munck LK, Vinter-Jensen L, Hanse BF, Nordgaard-Lassen I, Christensen S, Avnstroem S, Rasmussen SN, Rumessen JJ. Probiotic treatment of collagenous colitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. Lactis. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2006;12:395-401.

Jensen L, Munck LK. Elementary diet reduces diarrhoea associated with microscopic colitis. Scand J Gastroenterol 2005;40:1495-6.

Madisch A, Heymer P, Voss C, Wigginghaus B, Bästlein E, Bayerdörffer E, Meier E, Schimming W, Bethke B, Stolte M, Miehlke S. Oral Budesonide therapy improves quality of life in patients with collagenous colitis. Int J Colorect Dis 2005;20:312-

Miehlke S, Madisch A, Voss C, Morgner A, Heymer P, Kuhlisch E, Bethke B, Stolte M. Long-term follow-up of collagenous colitis after induction of clinical remission with budesonide. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2005;22:1115-9.

Miehlke S, Madisch A, Bethke B, Stolte M. Time to remission with budesonide in collagenous colitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2005;21:1507-8.

Bonderup OK, Hansen JB, Birket-Smith L, Vestergaard V, Teglbjaerg PS, Fallingborg J. Budesonide treatment of collagenous colitis: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial with morphometric analysis. Gut. 2003 Feb;52(2):248-51.

Munck LK, Kjeldsen J, Philipsen E, Fischer Hansen B. Incomplete remission with short-term prednisolone treatment in collagenous colitis: a randomized study. Scand J Gastroenterol 2003;38:606-10.

Miehlke S, Heymer P, Bethke B, Bästlein E, Meier E, Bartram HP, Wilhelms G, Lehn N, Dorta G, DeLarive J, Tromm A, Bayerdörffer E, Stolte M. Budenoside treatment for collagenous colitis ? a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Gastroenterology 2002;123:978-84.

Bonderup OK, Folkersen BH, Gjersøe P, Teglbjaerg PS. Collagenous colitis: a long-term follow-up study. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1999 May;11(5):493-5. PMID: 10755251 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE


REVIEWS

Bouma G, Münch A. Microscopic colitis Dig Dis 2015;33:208-14.

Münch A, Langner C. Microscopic colitis: A clinicopathological perspective. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2015;13:228-36.

Bohr J, Wickbom A, Hegedus A, Nyhlin N, Hultgren-Hörnquist E, Tysk C. Diagnosis and management of microscopic colitis: current perspectives. Clin Experiment Gastroenterol 2014;7:273-84

Langner C, Aust D, Ensari A, Villanacci V, Becheanu G, Miehlke S, Geboes K, Münch A on behalf of the Working Group of Digestive Diseases of the European Society of Pathology (ESP) and the European Microscopic Colitis Group (EMCG). Histology of Microscopic Colitis: Practical Approach for Pathologists. Histopathology 2014 Nov 8. doi: 10.1111/his.12592.

Munck LK, Wildt S, Engell PJ, Bonderup OK. Microscopic colitis is a common cause of chronic diarrhoea. Ugeskr Laeger 2014;176: V10130601.

Miehlke S, Aust D, Madisch A.. Microscopic colitis ? new insights relevant to clinical practice. Z Gastroenterol 2013;51:1389-94.

Münch A, Aust D, Bohr J, Bonderup O, Fernández Bañares F, Hjortswang H, Madisch A, Munck LK, Ström M, Tysk C, Miehlke S. Microscopic Colitis: current status, present and future challenges - Statements of the European Microscopic Colitis Group. J Crohn?s Colitis 2012;6:932-45.

Hultgren Hörnquist E. The Mucosal Immune System in Microscopic Colitis. In: Miehlke S, Münch A (eds): Microscopic Colitis ? Creating Awareness for an Underestimated Disease. Falk Workshop Basel, 2012, pp 33-39

Rasmussen MA, Munck LK. Systematic review: are lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis two subtypes of the same disease - microscopic colitis? Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2012;36:79-90.

Koulaouzidis A, Saeed AA. Distinct colonoscopy findings of microscopic colitis: not so microscopic after all? World J Gastroenterol 2011;17:4157-65.

Madisch A, Morgner A, Stolte M, Miehlke S. Investigational treatment options in microscopic colitis. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2008;17:1829-37.

Tysk C, Wickbom A, Nyhlin N, Eriksson S, Bohr J. Recent advances in diagnosis and treatment of microscopic colitis. Ann Gastroenterol 2011;24:253-262.

Bohr J, Löfberg R, Tysk C. Microscopic colitis. In: McDonald J, Burroughs A, Feagan B (eds). Evidence based gastroenterology and hepatology 2nd ed. London: Blackwell 2004. Revideret 2009.

Tysk C, Bohr J, Nyhlin N, Wickbom A, Eriksson S. Diagnosis and management of microscopic colitis. World J Gastroenterol 2008;14:7280-7288.

Nyhlin N, Bohr J, Eriksson S, Tysk C. Microscopic colitis: a common and an easily overlooked cause of chronic diarrhoea. Eur J Intern Med 2008;19:181-6.

Fernández-Bañares F. How much symptom overlap is there between microscopic colitis and IBS? Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol 2007;4:304-5.

Nyhlin N, Bohr J, Eriksson S, Tysk C. Microscopic colitis; a systematic review. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2006;23:1525-34

Bohr J. Mechanisms of pathogenesis in microscopic colitis. In: Jewell DP et al. (eds). Falk symposium 147. Colitis: Diagnosis and therapeutic strategies. Springer 2006.

Tysk C, Bohr J, Olesen M, Eriksson S, Järnerot G. Mikroskopisk kolit ? vanligare diarrésjukdom än du tror. Biopsier enda väg till diagnos, medicinsk behandling ger god effekt (Swedish). Läkartidningen 2005;102:2210-4.

Bohr J, Löfberg R, Tysk C. Microscopic and collagenous colitis. In McDonald J, Burroughs A, Feagan B (eds). Evidence based gastroenterology and hepatology 2nd ed. London: Blackwell 2004:221-29.

Tysk C. Collagenous and lymphocytic colitis: distinct disorders or part of spectrum of IBD? In: Lucas M, Manns MP, Spicak J, Stange EF (eds). Immunological diseases of liver and gut. London: Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004:219-233.

Bohr J, Tysk C, Järnerot G. Microscopic colitis. In: Sartor RB, Sandborn WJ (eds). Kirsner?s Inflammatory bowel disease 6th ed. Edinburgh: Saunders 2004:693-99.

Bohr J. Mikroskopisk colitis. Ugeskr Læger 2002;164:884-7.

Bohr J, Olesen M, Tysk C, Järnerot G. Collagenous and lymphocytic colitis. A clinical and histopathological review. Can J Gastroenterol 2000;14:943-947.

Fernández-Bañares F. [Collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis: not such an infrequent diagnosis]. Rev Esp Enferm Dig 1999;91:91-2. Spanish.

Bohr J, Tysk C, Järnerot G. Microscopic colitis. Medicine 1998;26:93-5.

Bohr J. A review of collagenous colitis. Scand J Gastroenterol 1998;33:2-9.

Fernández-Bañares F, Salas A, Forné M, Esteve M, Espinós JC, Viver JM. [Collagenous colitis]. Gastroenterol Hepatol 1998;21:239-44. Spanish.